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Modern Power Electronics And AC Drives


This text presents the basics of electrical power conversion and control through the use of power semiconductor switches. In addition, by demonstrating the practical applications of power electronics and motion control using AC electrical machines in transportation and industry, among other uses, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives reflects the latest advances in industrial automation.




Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives



DR. BIMAL K. BOSE is recognized worldwide as an authority and pioneer in the field of power electronics and drive technology. He has over 40 years of professional experience in R&D, design, and teaching. A seven-time IEEE Award winner, he holds 21 U.S. patents. He is currently at the University of Tennessee, where he holds the Condra Chair of Excellence in Power Electronics.


The first high-power electronic devices were made using mercury-arc valves. In modern systems, the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes, thyristors, and power transistors such as the power MOSFET and IGBT. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with the transmission and processing of signals and data, substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed in power electronics. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry, a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs starts from a few hundred watts and ends at tens of megawatts.


Power electronics started with the development of the mercury arc rectifier. Invented by Peter Cooper Hewitt in 1902, it was used to convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). From the 1920s on, research continued on applying thyratrons and grid-controlled mercury arc valves to power transmission. Uno Lamm developed a mercury valve with grading electrodes making them suitable for high voltage direct current power transmission. In 1933 selenium rectifiers were invented.[1]


Julius Edgar Lilienfeld proposed the concept of a field-effect transistor in 1926, but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time.[2] In 1947, the bipolar point-contact transistor was invented by Walter H. Brattain and John Bardeen under the direction of William Shockley at Bell Labs. In 1948 Shockley's invention of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) improved the stability and performance of transistors, and reduced costs. By the 1950s, higher power semiconductor diodes became available and started replacing vacuum tubes. In 1956 the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) was introduced by General Electric, greatly increasing the range of power electronics applications.[3] By the 1960s, the improved switching speed of bipolar junction transistors had allowed for high frequency DC/DC converters.


R. D. Middlebrook made important contributions to power electronics. In 1970, he founded the Power Electronics Group at Caltech.[4] He developed the state-space averaging method of analysis and other tools crucial to modern power electronics design.[5]


The capabilities and economy of power electronics system are determined by the active devices that are available. Their characteristics and limitations are a key element in the design of power electronics systems. Formerly, the mercury arc valve, the high-vacuum and gas-filled diode thermionic rectifiers, and triggered devices such as the thyratron and ignitron were widely used in power electronics. As the ratings of solid-state devices improved in both voltage and current-handling capacity, vacuum devices have been nearly entirely replaced by solid-state devices.


Power handling and dissipation of devices is also critical factor in design. Power electronic devices may have to dissipate tens or hundreds of watts of waste heat, even switching as efficiently as possible between conducting and non-conducting states. In the switching mode, the power controlled is much larger than the power dissipated in the switch. The forward voltage drop in the conducting state translates into heat that must be dissipated. High power semiconductors require specialized heat sinks or active cooling systems to manage their junction temperature; exotic semiconductors such as silicon carbide have an advantage over straight silicon in this respect, and germanium, once the main-stay of solid-state electronics is now little used due to its unfavorable high-temperature properties.


DC to AC converters produce an AC output waveform from a DC source. Applications include adjustable speed drives (ASD), uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), voltage compensators, and photovoltaic inverters. Topologies for these converters can be separated into two distinct categories: voltage source inverters and current source inverters. Voltage source inverters (VSIs) are named so because the independently controlled output is a voltage waveform. Similarly, current source inverters (CSIs) are distinct in that the controlled AC output is a current waveform.


Applications of power electronics range in size from a switched mode power supply in an AC adapter, battery chargers, audio amplifiers, fluorescent lamp ballasts, through variable frequency drives and DC motor drives used to operate pumps, fans, and manufacturing machinery, up to gigawatt-scale high voltage direct current power transmission systems used to interconnect electrical grids. Power electronic systems are found in virtually every electronic device. For example:


In hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), power electronics are used in two formats: series hybrid and parallel hybrid. The difference between a series hybrid and a parallel hybrid is the relationship of the electric motor to the internal combustion engine (ICE). Devices used in electric vehicles consist mostly of dc/dc converters for battery charging and dc/ac converters to power the propulsion motor. Electric trains use power electronic devices to obtain power, as well as for vector control using pulse-width modulation (PWM) rectifiers. The trains obtain their power from power lines. Another new usage for power electronics is in elevator systems. These systems may use thyristors, inverters, permanent magnet motors, or various hybrid systems that incorporate PWM systems and standard motors.[29]


In general, inverters are utilized in applications requiring direct conversion of electrical energy from DC to AC or indirect conversion from AC to AC. DC to AC conversion is useful for many fields, including power conditioning, harmonic compensation, motor drives, renewable energy grid integration, and spacecraft solar power systems.


Electric power generated by wind turbines and hydroelectric turbines by using induction generators can cause variances in the frequency at which power is generated. Power electronic devices are utilized in these systems to convert the generated ac voltages into high-voltage direct current (HVDC). The HVDC power can be more easily converted into three phase power that is coherent with the power associated to the existing power grid. Through these devices, the power delivered by these systems is cleaner and has a higher associated power factor. Wind power systems optimum torque is obtained either through a gearbox or direct drive technologies that can reduce the size of the power electronics device.[32]


Power electronics can be used to help utilities adapt to the rapid increase in distributed residential/commercial solar power generation. Germany and parts of Hawaii, California, and New Jersey require costly studies to be conducted before approving new solar installations. Relatively small-scale ground- or pole-mounted devices create the potential for a distributed control infrastructure to monitor and manage the flow of power. Traditional electromechanical systems, such as capacitor banks or voltage regulators at substations, can take minutes to adjust voltage and can be distant from the solar installations where the problems originate. If voltage on a neighborhood circuit goes too high, it can endanger utility crews and cause damage to both utility and customer equipment. Further, a grid fault causes photovoltaic generators to shut down immediately, spiking the demand for grid power. Smart grid-based regulators are more controllable than far more numerous consumer devices.[33]


\r \tModern Power Electronics and AC Drives, authored by Bimal K. Bose, is a book that will prove important for several modern systems like house appliances and automated factories. Some of the subjects covered in this book are: power semiconductor devices, electrical machines, classes of converters, and induction and synchronous motor drives. The text will be useful to students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate level courses.


With modern power electronics and advanced microprocessor technology, Delta's AC Motor Drives are able to efficiently control motor speed, improve machine automation and save energy. Taking advantage of our strong position in power electronics technology, Delta's VFD Series of AC motor Drives has evolved rapidly. Each Drive series is designed to meet specific application needs. Our AC Drives accurately control speed and torque, smoothly handle an increased load, and provide numerous custom control and configuration operating modes. Our AC Motor Drive product line provides a full range of motor control technologies and is used throughout a wide range of industries, to enhance and improve machine automation. 041b061a72


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